Game tutorial – Pink Noam http://pinknoam.com/ Sun, 10 Oct 2021 08:21:57 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://pinknoam.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/default-120x120.png Game tutorial – Pink Noam http://pinknoam.com/ 32 32 Mortal Kombat 11 has the best fighting game tutorial ever https://pinknoam.com/mortal-kombat-11-has-the-best-fighting-game-tutorial-ever/ https://pinknoam.com/mortal-kombat-11-has-the-best-fighting-game-tutorial-ever/#respond Tue, 23 Apr 2019 07:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/mortal-kombat-11-has-the-best-fighting-game-tutorial-ever/ At one point, fighting games stopped being fighting games. Instead of just mastering a fighter’s movements and internalizing the speed and pace of a game, players realized that there was a deeper, almost imperceptible level in fighting games that once mastered, would give them a huge advantage over their opponents. They learned to cancel motions […]]]>

At one point, fighting games stopped being fighting games. Instead of just mastering a fighter’s movements and internalizing the speed and pace of a game, players realized that there was a deeper, almost imperceptible level in fighting games that once mastered, would give them a huge advantage over their opponents. They learned to cancel motions and read frame data, effectively scrutinizing the game and the code that created it. They developed techniques that then inspired developers to create new fighting games, creating a feedback loop that split the player base into two camps: the mass of intermittent players who might choose a fighting game for fun. and know only what the game explicitly tells you, and the small group of dedicated fighters who use their obscure knowledge of the game’s inner workings to dominate these other fools.

I’m one of those fools, if you can’t tell.

I’ve been playing fighting games for as long as they’ve been around. Apart from getting the high score on a Yie Ar Kung-Fu Mr. Gatti’s pizza maker at one point during the Reagan years, I was never particularly good at them. I’m the kind of player who learns all the moves and combos of my favorite character, then gets destroyed by my friends whose only strategy is to smash the buttons as quickly as possible. I can handle the computer with lower difficulties, but I’m desperate for real competition unless they are also trying to figure out the game. And as bad as I am against button presses, I’m catastrophically worse off when I run into someone who knows this secret language of fighting games. If you can count the frames and are looking for perfect rounds, you better hope I end up on the other side of your online match.

I assumed it would be the same with Mortal Kombat 11. I was going through my typical routine with a new fighting game: I would rush through the tutorial just to get the basics, then play story mode until I hit a wall about three-quarters of the way through. I would bang my head against this wall over and over again for a few days, then reduce the difficulty (if that’s even an option) or give up entirely. And I only went online when I felt the need to be absolutely embarrassed by a stranger.

Mortal Kombat 11 cares, however. He cares all gamers, not just world class fighting game masters waltzing through such games like Neo. His tutorial is the first I’ve seen that teaches not only the rules of the game, but those unspoken techniques that separate serious gamers from tourists. He draws the curtain on this hidden tradition and helps everyone start to understand it.

The tutorial begins like any fighting game lesson, showing you basic controls and moves before moving on to specials and combos. It doesn’t end with the moveset, however. He then teaches offensive and defensive strategy, helping you think about the importance of spacing and timing. It breaks down motion cancellation and explains why it’s a useful technique. And then he explains the frame data in detail, showing how the frames of each movement are divided into three periods, explaining how the start time and recovery of a movement can be used to its advantage (or disadvantage), and even guiding players through the concepts. as safe (or dangerous) on the block. The player is actually performing all of these techniques throughout, so that they can begin to develop a feel for how and when to perform them.

I’ve been hearing about these kinds of techniques for years, but I’ve never had the time to study them. There was no easy way to do this efficiently – I had to post a website that broke down all this information, or a video on YouTube, and go back and forth between my phone and the game while trying to figure out how. do it. It is neither fun nor practical. Not understanding these techniques puts a damper on a player’s quality in a fighting game, so the difficulty in knowing them was a de facto barrier to entry for the vast majority of players.

Mortal Kombat 11 is doing everything possible to break down this barrier. It breaks down the imperceptible into easy-to-follow, step-by-step chunks that anyone can learn. Of course, just knowing how to count frame data doesn’t mean that most players will be able to do it efficiently with any regularity. Additionally, it’s entirely possible that new meta-techniques will be discovered by the fighting game community as they continue to seek perks, once again leaving most gamers out of the loop. And maybe NetherRealm intentionally incorporated some new meta tactics into Mortal Kombat 11, knowing that the most dedicated players would find them quickly and smuggle them around as they once did with these other techniques.

For now, however, Mortal Kombat 11 explodes much of the mystery around fighting games. I have been playing Mortal Kombat games for almost 30 years, but this is my first time playing really played the way fighting games are meant to be played these days. And that is only possible thanks to this tutorial.


Edits from Garrett Martin Doughcomedy and games sections. He’s on Twitter @grmartin.



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“A tutorial-level adaptation of a video game” – Read what critics have to say about Tomb Raider https://pinknoam.com/a-tutorial-level-adaptation-of-a-video-game-read-what-critics-have-to-say-about-tomb-raider/ https://pinknoam.com/a-tutorial-level-adaptation-of-a-video-game-read-what-critics-have-to-say-about-tomb-raider/#respond Thu, 15 Mar 2018 07:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/a-tutorial-level-adaptation-of-a-video-game-read-what-critics-have-to-say-about-tomb-raider/ Lara Croft is finally making her long-awaited return to cinema after 15 years. But was it worth the wait? Alicia Vikander steps into the well-worn (muddy) boots of everyone’s favorite archaeologist and our Tomb Raider review says, despite her best intentions, that she “never digs gold.” Video game movies have a notoriously bad reputation – […]]]>

Lara Croft is finally making her long-awaited return to cinema after 15 years. But was it worth the wait? Alicia Vikander steps into the well-worn (muddy) boots of everyone’s favorite archaeologist and our Tomb Raider review says, despite her best intentions, that she “never digs gold.” Video game movies have a notoriously bad reputation – so how come it: does it deserve a place on Mount Rushmore of game adaptations?

“A good deed, however, can mask a number of flaws in this genre of film, and Tomb Raider has stellar sets to spare. Whether Lara clings to an old rusty plane to escape a stunt or is chased by Cyclists in an innocent game of “fox hunting” through the streets of London, Uthaug possesses a surprisingly consistent mastery of the action. Cameras dive and swing through the branches of the jungle and the streets of the city, now always clear spatial relationships between Lara and whatever she pursues, stalks or hits.

Alicia Vikander’s quality of every (woman) man – Variety


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Tekken 7 needs in-game tutorial https://pinknoam.com/tekken-7-needs-in-game-tutorial/ https://pinknoam.com/tekken-7-needs-in-game-tutorial/#respond Fri, 30 Jun 2017 07:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/tekken-7-needs-in-game-tutorial/ Tekken 7 does not have an in-game tutorial. Novice players Tekken games will lose out for the wrong reasons. Just because they need to practice the subtle mechanics of the game, it’s not because they won’t know those subtle mechanics exist in the first place. This creates a huge knowledge gap between new Tekken players […]]]>

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Tekken 7 does not have an in-game tutorial. Novice players Tekken games will lose out for the wrong reasons. Just because they need to practice the subtle mechanics of the game, it’s not because they won’t know those subtle mechanics exist in the first place. This creates a huge knowledge gap between new Tekken players and veterans who have developed their muscle memory and strategy over the years. New players cannot enjoy the game to the level they could.

In a interview with Committed, game director Katsuhiro Harada said that Tekken 7 is “more accessible to new[er], more novice players. Bandai Namco simplified the combo system from Tekken 6 and scaled combo damage so that a player who is cut in the air doesn’t instantly lose due to a well-timed juggle. They removed the rear roller to get up from the ground, which was previously extremely dangerous, and replaced it with a safer, more defensive animation. And they’ve incorporated “Rage Arts,” which gives players the ability to return with easy-to-perform power combos.

One way to make this game “more accessible” is to provide an in-game tutorial. This has become the norm in modern fighting games such as Street Fighter V and Injustice 2. In Tekken 7, the only direct help in the game are little hints that spin at the bottom of the game’s loading screens. Watch this one:

Image of the article titled Tekken 7 Needs In-Game Tutorial

“Press (press up) to switch to the background or (press down) to switch to the foreground of the screen. “

This is important information, but it is not well communicated. First, the word “press” will confuse new players: if the player “press” up, the character will jump; you have to “tap” from top to bottom to avoid, or move between the background and the foreground. Second, the side step is inherent in 3D fighting games and sets them apart from 2D games. Players who do not know it or cannot master it only know a fraction of the game’s strategies. Burying this essential information makes the game impenetrable for inexperienced players.

Here’s another loading hint:

Image of the article titled Tekken 7 Needs In-Game Tutorial

“Miguel’s Rage Drive is a mid-attack combo that can send opponents into a spin when he strikes.”

It’s closer to what an in-game hint should be. It is character-specific, technique-specific, and deals with the properties of a specific movement. But it also uses lingo that new players won’t understand. What is Rage Drive? What is a medium attack and how do its properties differ from high or low attacks? Is “spinning” a desirable outcome? What do you do after “turning” an opponent? Not only is this hint inadequate as a tutorial, it raises more questions than it answers.

Here’s another basic concept that is never explicitly taught in the game: How do you break a pitch? The character movement lists in the game, the scrolling procedures for each character, are heavy on attack and light on defense. They show how to make throws, but never how to block them effectively. The only hint of load in the game regarding throwing is a frustrating wave and reduces the fundamentals to the level of random trivia.

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“Escape is triggered the moment you are caught by pressing the corresponding button (s). “

For the purposes of this article, use the notation in the following diagram, which has become standard for the Tekken community.

Image of the article titled Tekken 7 Needs In-Game Tutorial

An opponent would perform a basic throw by pressing 1 + 3 or pressing 2 + 4. To break a 1 + 3 roll, a player would press 1. To break a 2 + 4 roll, a player would press 2. Sometimes the opponent might use a more complicated “command” roll, such as d / f + 1 +2, or f, f + 1 + 4. For those, a player would press 1 + 2. There are exceptions to these rules, and multiple throws (such as back throws) are essential. But that’s the general idea.

I imagine that one Tekken the newcomer would read the clue in the game—“Evasion launches the moment when you are caught by pressing the corresponding button (s)” –and be completely misled. To counter a 1 + 3 throw, how would a person press 1 and not 1 + 3? To counter af, f + 1 + 4, how could a person press 1 + 2?

“When you get caught” is also vague. The play footage below shows one of King’s chain throws. Whenever the training dummy briefly changes color, from blue to normal and then to blue, this is the real window of opportunity to counter.

This color change is useful for mastering timing, but it is accessible through an extremely comprehensive but not intuitive training mode. To view it, a player would go to “Display Settings” and set “Recovery Animation” to “Display”.

Image of the article titled Tekken 7 Needs In-Game Tutorial

How would a newbie navigate a menu full of unfamiliar options to enjoy a recovery animation display they might not even know existed? How would a beginner even know why Recovery Animation is important?

A tutorial in Practice mode could guide a player through all of the different menu options in the mode, thus maximizing the mode’s usage. As it stands, that’s wasted potential for the average player. It’s like giving a $ 300 tennis racquet to someone who is still learning to swing and expects them to improve.

In the absence of a tutorial, the Tekken community filled in the knowledge gap and demonstrated mechanical to new players by various tutorial videos. But the community would be better off if everyone had the same level of foundational knowledge to begin with. For Tekken 7 to be truly accessible to new players, the game should provide the knowledge that the community currently has. An in-game tutorial would allow novice players to learn the game on their own, without the aid of external wikis or videos, in order to master the universal mechanics for all characters. And then, more people can focus on the metagame, where the most interesting discussion takes place, and the unique strategies for each character.

New Tekken players should get thrown, not because they didn’t know how to break the throw, but because they couldn’t read the opponent’s movements correctly. New Tekken players should be swept away, not because they didn’t know how to do a low parry, but because they didn’t parry quickly enough. An in-game tutorial would mean new Tekken players could stop losing for the wrong reasons and start losing for the good ones.


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This augmented reality concept is like a real video game tutorial for your Airbnb rental https://pinknoam.com/this-augmented-reality-concept-is-like-a-real-video-game-tutorial-for-your-airbnb-rental/ https://pinknoam.com/this-augmented-reality-concept-is-like-a-real-video-game-tutorial-for-your-airbnb-rental/#respond Fri, 30 Jun 2017 07:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/this-augmented-reality-concept-is-like-a-real-video-game-tutorial-for-your-airbnb-rental/ We’ve seen some interesting uses of Apple’s ARKit and other phone-based augmented realities, but this concept design is one of my personal favorites: an AR overlay to install guests in an Airbnb rental. It’s like an actual version of the tutorial interface in a video game, except instead of telling you that you can open […]]]>

We’ve seen some interesting uses of Apple’s ARKit and other phone-based augmented realities, but this concept design is one of my personal favorites: an AR overlay to install guests in an Airbnb rental. It’s like an actual version of the tutorial interface in a video game, except instead of telling you that you can open gates to sneak into locked rooms, it shows you how to use the thermostat or find a room. first aid kit. (It’s also a smart replacement for sticking notes on the wall, which is probably more accurate, but less fun to imagine.)

The concept was conceived by interface designer Isil Uzum, who imagines combining the augmented reality capabilities of ARKit or Google’s Project Tango with the location detection features of a smartphone. Airbnb hosts can pin notes or videos to specific places or objects, and travelers can see those POIs listed in their Airbnb app. They could select one, hold their own phone, and see an arrow pointing them in the right direction. When approached, a contextual overlay could provide information or instructions. Uzum has a longer explanation with some additional notes here.

This is just a design idea, not an actual app or something from Airbnb affiliate. I’m not sure if this would work well in a real-world Airbnb rental, as it looks like it would require extremely precise geolocation (possibly with something like a bluetooth beacon) and image recognition, not your standard spatial tracking in augmented reality. The idea of ​​labeling virtual notes in a real space is not new at all; The developers of Microsoft HoloLens imagined using such a system on construction sites for example. But that’s a pretty smart use of the idea, and something I could easily imagine that a company like Airbnb would test for itself – albeit a spokesperson. apparently said Cnet that for now, AR is just one “area we are currently exploring”.


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Senior pays for college as YouTube video game tutorial star https://pinknoam.com/senior-pays-for-college-as-youtube-video-game-tutorial-star/ https://pinknoam.com/senior-pays-for-college-as-youtube-video-game-tutorial-star/#respond Mon, 16 Nov 2015 08:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/senior-pays-for-college-as-youtube-video-game-tutorial-star/ It’s 7:45 p.m. and senior Matt Cobuzio has decided it’s time to get down to business. He walks over to his PlayStation 4, plugs in his microphone and turns on his computer and webcam. “What’s going on guys, my name is Matt and I’m mcsportzhawk!” Today I’m going to show you Margwa’s headed Easter egg […]]]>

It’s 7:45 p.m. and senior Matt Cobuzio has decided it’s time to get down to business. He walks over to his PlayStation 4, plugs in his microphone and turns on his computer and webcam.

“What’s going on guys, my name is Matt and I’m mcsportzhawk!” Today I’m going to show you Margwa’s headed Easter egg in “Shadows of Evil”.

The work of the double major in television, radio, film and news management is not that of a typical student. He makes YouTube videos giving video game tips and tutorials to viewers on how to successfully play games like “Call of Duty”. Its main channel mcsportzhawk had 429,360 subscribers on YouTube Monday night at 7 p.m.

When Cobuzio got his first salary, he couldn’t believe his eyes. “Zero dollars and ninety cents,” he said. It may not seem like much, but for Cobuzio it meant the world. Her family laughed at her enthusiasm for the small payment, but the next month her paycheck was $ 900. Now he earns enough to pay for his studies.

Cobuzio started making videos in December 2009 when he was in his second year in high school. Despite the enormous success it enjoys today, getting started was not an easy task.

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I started with nothing; I had no subscribers, I was sharing the video on Facebook and sending it to my friends who were playing the game and asking my parents and family of friends to watch it every now and then if it was. relevant, and it was a slow start for sure.

Matt Cobuzio

Cobuzio said he started making videos for fun and was very excited once his channel started to gain popularity. He was elated when he hit 100 subscribers, which is paltry compared to the nearly half a million he has today.

It took four years before the Cobuzio chain picked up and began to grow at a substantial rate. There were times when her view counts increased after making a video on a new game, but her channel ended up falling to lower audience levels. However, Cobuzio has remained committed and has now achieved levels of success he never imagined.

In addition to generating consistent income through its YouTube videos, Cobuzio has been sponsored and endorsed by many well-known game companies, such as EA Games and Activision. The companies will pay Cobuzio to play their games before their release dates.

Cobuzio also said that the game companies flew him to conventions such as SUPER! BitCon and E3 to be one of the first to play new games or consoles.

Despite the great reward his work offers, Cobuzio’s success has not come without a lot of hard work.

The ability to schedule his own hours is a huge plus, but Cobuzio knows that if he deviates from his hours and doesn’t consistently produce content, his business will quickly decline. His most common times for making videos are from 10 p.m. to 3 a.m. so he doesn’t miss out on too many social opportunities.

He also has two other YouTube channels – one is a skits and jokes channel and the other is a joint channel with his girlfriend where they do boyfriend vs girlfriend challenges and vlogs. He’s also starting a business outside of his YouTube star efforts, where he’s creating an online course that teaches people how to maximize views on their YouTube channels.

Nick Matarazzo, a major junior in television, radio and film, works with Cobuzio on their JerseyToSyracuse YouTube channel. The duo produce comedy sketches on the channel, and Matarazzo said he was lucky to have had the opportunity to work so closely with Cobuzio.

“Matt Cobuzio’s work ethic is unparalleled,” Matarazzo said in a text message. “When he’s motivated to do something new, nothing can stop him. He inspires the people around him to strive to be their best because he will not accept anything less for himself and his close friends.

This work ethic is necessary for Cobuzio, as making the videos themselves can be exhausting. He improvises and records each video, modifies it, creates a video thumbnail, then publishes and titles the video so as to generate as many views as possible based on his analyzes.

Throughout his career of uploading videos to YouTube, Cobuzio has faced a lot of negativity that would turn many off, but he continues to pursue his passion and business despite all the obstacles that come his way.

Cobuzio said, “The best thing about YouTube is that I’ve become so much more confident about what I’m capable of and who I am since I started posting videos and making it successful than it didn’t even baffle me; I can read the worst hateful comments you can imagine and I have no problem with that.

Contact: [email protected]


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FIFA 16 – Best Dribbling Technique in Game Tutorial https://pinknoam.com/fifa-16-best-dribbling-technique-in-game-tutorial/ https://pinknoam.com/fifa-16-best-dribbling-technique-in-game-tutorial/#respond Tue, 29 Sep 2015 07:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/fifa-16-best-dribbling-technique-in-game-tutorial/ FIFA 16 is a very different game from FIFA 15. The gameplay is slower and more tactical which means you can’t use the beat to beat your man like you could in previous FIFA games. Most of the players I meet on Ultimate Team and Seasons rely on fast players to score their goals. In […]]]>

FIFA 16 is a very different game from FIFA 15. The gameplay is slower and more tactical which means you can’t use the beat to beat your man like you could in previous FIFA games. Most of the players I meet on Ultimate Team and Seasons rely on fast players to score their goals. In FIFA 16, these players have to adapt and try their style of play in order to have a chance to do well in competition.

In FIFA 16, dribbling and good passing are essential. In you are not a good dribbler so practice! This is what the arena and the exercises are for, practice until you are able to complete the golden challenges.

Besides skill moves, the best dribbling technique is the new non-contact dribbling. This new dribbling technique introduced in FIFA 16 allows players to move without the ball to shake their opponents and quickly change direction. Non-contact dribbling allows players to change direction quickly like with body feints and false shots in FIFA 15 to beat your man and score incredible goals.

Since its novelty, players will have to practice contactless dribbling before they are good at it. Using the technique is straightforward, just hold L1 (PS3 / PS4) or LT (Xbox 360 / Xbox One) and move the right analog stick in the direction you want. These are good little feints for beating opponents near you or when you’re not running. Big feints are done by holding down the R2 (PS3 / PS4) or RT (Xbox 360 / Xbox One) sprint button while holding the L1 or LT button. Large feints help when you’re on the counter or running towards opponents and have enough room to move the ball.

Check out a video guide below showing the contactless dribbling mechanism:

[youtube width=”602″ height=”350″ video_id=”wW_UCX3NcjA”]

So jump online and let us know how No Touch Dribbling works for you, good luck!



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Persona 4: Dancing All Night Streaming Game Tutorial Videos – News https://pinknoam.com/persona-4-dancing-all-night-streaming-game-tutorial-videos-news/ https://pinknoam.com/persona-4-dancing-all-night-streaming-game-tutorial-videos-news/#respond Sat, 14 Mar 2015 07:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/persona-4-dancing-all-night-streaming-game-tutorial-videos-news/ Atlus has started releasing two new how-to videos featuring the Persona 4 Teddie character for his Persona 4: Dance the night away Playstation Vita rhythm game Thursday. In the tutorials, Teddie introduces the basic controls of the game and explains how to properly handle the various notes that appear on the screen. Japanese retailer LAWSON […]]]>

Atlus has started releasing two new how-to videos featuring the Persona 4 Teddie character for his Persona 4: Dance the night away Playstation Vita rhythm game Thursday. In the tutorials, Teddie introduces the basic controls of the game and explains how to properly handle the various notes that appear on the screen.





Japanese retailer LAWSON too preview the LAWSON Original Costume DLC for Nanako, Kanami and the Protagonist that will come with copies of the game purchased from his Loppi / HMV online store.



LAWSON Original costumes

The game will be released in Japan on June 25 and the first copies will ship with a Blu-ray containing images of Persona 5. A special “crazy value pack” will be shipped the same day, and will contain a collector’s box with an original illustration, the PS Vita game, a 2 discs Original Sound Track, as well as three pieces of DLC:



Persona 3Gekkōkan Academy uniforms as costumes




Persona 4: The walleye epilogue costumes




“Never again” by Shihoko Hirata additional playable song

The DLC will also be available in the Playstation Store for purchase sometime after the game’s release.

A “Premium Mad Box” will also be shipped, and the box contains the Mad Value Pack, as well as a Limited Edition. Playstation Vita system with a Persona 4: Dance the night away design.


The game was originally scheduled for last fall, but was delayed until this year. The website also previously listed Dingo as a development partner, but now only lists Atlus and Sega.

The game’s story begins six months after the Inaba City serial murder case is resolved, and Rise Kujikawa returns to the entertainment world. As rumors start to spread that “at midnight, if you see a strange video playing on a certain site, you are transported to” the other side “and will never wake up again”, members of the idol group “Kanamin Kitchen,” which includes The Rise Kanami Mashita subclass (voiced by Minako Kotobuki), disappear.

In the game, the “Hero”, Rise, Kanami, Yosuke, Chie, Kanji, Yukiko, Naoto, Nanako and others Persona 4 the characters engage in a “dance battle” with the Shadows in the mysterious world of “Mayonaka Stage”.

Atlus The United States has confirmed that it will release the game in North America.

[Via Gematsu]


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JavaFX 2 Game Tutorial Part 2 https://pinknoam.com/javafx-2-game-tutorial-part-2/ https://pinknoam.com/javafx-2-game-tutorial-part-2/#respond Tue, 24 Apr 2012 07:00:00 +0000 https://pinknoam.com/javafx-2-game-tutorial-part-2/ t This is the second installment in a series of blog entries related to a javafx 2 gaming tutorial. If you haven’t read Part 1, please check out the introduction javafx 2 game tutorial section. To recap in part 1, I mention some aspects of the game and a simple demo of a prototype spaceship […]]]>

t

This is the second installment in a series of blog entries related to a javafx 2 gaming tutorial. If you haven’t read Part 1, please check out the

introduction

javafx 2 game tutorial section. To recap in part 1, I mention some aspects of the game and a simple demo of a prototype spaceship (made up of simple shapes) that can navigate with the mouse.

disclaimer

: it’s a long tutorial so if you just want to run the demo just

Click on

here

. the demo is called atom smasher where you generate atoms (spheres) which collide. you can freeze the game to add more atoms. the goal is to have more than one living and bouncing atom. a text displays the current number of atoms floating around. Before we start our discussion of a game loop, I wanted to give you a history of games and animation.

Back then (during the 80s-90s) many game programmers attempting to animate images encountered the infamous screen flickering problem. this is where your

sprites

(graphic images) will often flicker and make the game pretty awful. all monitors have a refresh rate where certain intervals the pixels will be redrawn (called

vertical tracing crts

). for example, if the refresh rate is 80Hz, the screen is redrawn about 80 times per second. If you change things on the screen, you can often get out of sync due to a refresh interval. what should you do about it? well, actually there are two things that will help with this problem (double buffering and knowing when the cycle is happening). some smart developers have created a technique called double buffering.

double buffer

is a technique that consists of two surfaces where each in turn becomes the displayable surface and the other is an off-screen area (buffer surface). this technique is really a digital sleight of hand where the developer can pre-calculate the sprites and their positions to draw on the off-screen surface. once you are done drawing on the offscreen pad, the code will change it as a displayable surface. an important thing to point out is that we still have a problem due to the fact that we need to be notified when the refresh interval is about to start the refresh process. in java, this capability is integrated via the

buffer strategy

api. so where am i going with this? sometimes explaining past strategies will help us appreciate what we have today. do we have to do it in javafx? Nope. fear not javafx is here! all the issues i mentioned are all fixed for us using javafx’s scene chart API. However, most of the games still use the old method of animating graphics and updating the game world known as the game loop.

Simply put, the game loop is responsible for updating sprites (graphics), checking for collisions, and cleaning up. older game loops will check for key and mouse events as part of the loop. since javafx abstracts events to allow scene or individual nodes to handle events, the ability to listen to low level events is not needed in our game loop. below is a source code snippet from ‘a typical game loop that will update sprites, check for collisions, and clean up sprites every cycle. you will notice the javafx 2.x duration object which is 60 divided by 1000 milliseconds or 60 frames per second (fps). each frame will call the

manipulate()

javafx method

Event Manager

interface in order to update the game world. hypothetically, I created three methods

updatesprites ()

,

check for collisions ()

, and

cleanupsprites ()

which will be invoked to manage the sprites in the game.

final duration oneframeamt = duration.millis(1000/60);
final keyframe oneframe = new keyframe(oneframeamt,
   new eventhandler() {

   @override
   public void handle(javafx.event.actionevent event) {

      // update actors
      updatesprites();

      // check for collision
      checkcollisions();

      // removed dead things
      cleanupsprites();

   }
}); // oneframe

// sets the game world's game loop (timeline)
timelinebuilder.create()
   .cyclecount(animation.indefinite)
   .keyframes(oneframe)
   .build()
   .play();


the above code snippet is really all you need to make a simple game or animation. However, you might want to take things to the next level. you might want to build a game engine that can handle sprites and state of the game world.

a

game engine

is a fancy name for a utility or library responsible for encapsulating the game world, running the game loop, handling sprites, physics, etc. the wheel when creating a 2D game from scratch. to move quickly i created a uml class diagram of a game engine design.

Below is figure 1 a class diagram of the javafx game engine.

figure 1.a javafx 2 game engine design

in figure 1 a javafx 2 game engine design, you will notice three classes a

Game universe

,

sprite manager

, and

leprechaun

. the

Game universe

The class is responsible for initializing game state, running the game loop, updating sprites, handling sprite collisions, and cleaning up. the next is the

sprite manager

class which is responsible for managing sprites by adding, removing and keeping collisions. finally, is the

leprechaun

class which is responsible for maintaining the state of an image (actor). in a 2D world, a sprite can contain the speed, rotation, scene node, or image of the object that is ultimately rendered every cycle (keyframe / frames per second).

just a little reminder on the uml notation: the plus symbol “+” indicates that a member of the class is public, the minus symbol “-” is private and the pound symbol “#” means protected.

Game universe

below is the source code implementation of the gameworld class. Click to enlarge. later you will see a class diagram illustrating a simple demo game that will extend the gameworld class.

package carlfx.gameengine;

import javafx.animation.animation;
import javafx.animation.keyframe;
import javafx.animation.timeline;
import javafx.animation.timelinebuilder;
import javafx.event.actionevent;
import javafx.event.eventhandler;
import javafx.scene.group;
import javafx.scene.scene;
import javafx.stage.stage;
import javafx.util.duration;

/**
 * this application demonstrates a javafx 2.x game loop.
 * shown below are the methods which comprise of the fundamentals to a
 * simple game loop in javafx:
*
 *  <strong>initialize()</strong> - initialize the game world.
 *  <strong>begingameloop()</strong> - creates a javafx timeline object containing the game life cycle.
 *  <strong>updatesprites()</strong> - updates the sprite objects each period (per frame)
 *  <strong>checkcollisions()</strong> - method will determine objects that collide with each other.
 *  <strong>cleanupsprites()</strong> - any sprite objects needing to be removed from play.
 *
 * @author cdea
 */
public abstract class gameworld {

    /** the javafx scene as the game surface */
    private scene gamesurface;
    /** all nodes to be displayed in the game window. */
    private group scenenodes;
    /** the game loop using javafx's <code>timeline</code> api.*/
    private static timeline gameloop;

    /** number of frames per second. */
    private final int framespersecond;

    /** title in the application window.*/
    private final string windowtitle;

    /**
     * the sprite manager.
     */
    private final spritemanager spritemanager = new spritemanager();

    /**
     * constructor that is called by the derived class. this will
     * set the frames per second, title, and setup the game loop.
     * @param fps - frames per second.
     * @param title - title of the application window.
     */
    public gameworld(final int fps, final string title) {
        framespersecond = fps;
        windowtitle = title;
        // create and set timeline for the game loop
        buildandsetgameloop();
    }

    /**
     * builds and sets the game loop ready to be started.
     */
    protected final void buildandsetgameloop() {

        final duration oneframeamt = duration.millis(1000/getframespersecond());
        final keyframe oneframe = new keyframe(oneframeamt,
            new eventhandler() {

                @override
                public void handle(javafx.event.actionevent event) {

                    // update actors
                    updatesprites();

                    // check for collision
                    checkcollisions();

                    // removed dead things
                    cleanupsprites();

                }
        }); // oneframe

        // sets the game world's game loop (timeline)
        setgameloop(timelinebuilder.create()
                .cyclecount(animation.indefinite)
                .keyframes(oneframe)
                .build());
    }

    /**
     * initialize the game world by update the javafx stage.
     * @param primarystage
     */
    public abstract void initialize(final stage primarystage);

    /**kicks off (plays) the timeline objects containing one key frame
     * that simply runs indefinitely with each frame invoking a method
     * to update sprite objects, check for collisions, and cleanup sprite
     * objects.
     *
     */
    public void begingameloop() {
        getgameloop().play();
    }

    /**
     * updates each game sprite in the game world. this method will
     * loop through each sprite and passing it to the handleupdate()
     * method. the derived class should override handleupdate() method.
     *
     */
    protected void updatesprites() {
        for (sprite sprite:spritemanager.getallsprites()){
            handleupdate(sprite);
        }
    }

    /** updates the sprite object's information to position on the game surface.
     * @param sprite - the sprite to update.
     */
    protected void handleupdate(sprite sprite) {
    }

    /**
     * checks each game sprite in the game world to determine a collision
     * occurred. the method will loop through each sprite and
     * passing it to the handlecollision()
     * method. the derived class should override handlecollision() method.
     *
     */
    protected void checkcollisions() {
        // check other sprite's collisions
        spritemanager.resetcollisionstocheck();
        // check each sprite against other sprite objects.
        for (sprite spritea:spritemanager.getcollisionstocheck()){
            for (sprite spriteb:spritemanager.getallsprites()){
                if (handlecollision(spritea, spriteb)) {
                    // the break helps optimize the collisions
                    //  the break statement means one object only hits another
                    // object as opposed to one hitting many objects.
                    // to be more accurate comment out the break statement.
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * when two objects collide this method can handle the passed in sprite
     * objects. by default it returns false, meaning the objects do not
     * collide.
     * @param spritea - called from checkcollision() method to be compared.
     * @param spriteb - called from checkcollision() method to be compared.
     * @return boolean true if the objects collided, otherwise false.
     */
    protected boolean handlecollision(sprite spritea, sprite spriteb) {
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * sprites to be cleaned up.
     */
    protected void cleanupsprites() {
        spritemanager.cleanupsprites();
    }

    /**
     * returns the frames per second.
     * @return int the frames per second.
     */
    protected int getframespersecond() {
        return framespersecond;
    }

    /**
     * returns the game's window title.
     * @return string the game's window title.
     */
    public string getwindowtitle() {
        return windowtitle;
    }

    /**
     * the game loop (timeline) which is used to update, check collisions, and
     * cleanup sprite objects at every interval (fps).
     * @return timeline an animation running indefinitely representing the game
     * loop.
     */
    protected static timeline getgameloop() {
        return gameloop;
    }

    /**
     * the sets the current game loop for this game world.
     * @param gameloop timeline object of an animation running indefinitely
     * representing the game loop.
     */
    protected static void setgameloop(timeline gameloop) {
        gameworld.gameloop = gameloop;
    }

    /**
     * returns the sprite manager containing the sprite objects to
     * manipulate in the game.
     * @return spritemanager the sprite manager.
     */
    protected spritemanager getspritemanager() {
        return spritemanager;
    }

    /**
     * returns the javafx scene. this is called the game surface to
     * allow the developer to add javafx node objects onto the scene.
     * @return
     */
    public scene getgamesurface() {
        return gamesurface;
    }

    /**
     * sets the javafx scene. this is called the game surface to
     * allow the developer to add javafx node objects onto the scene.
     * @param gamesurface the main game surface (javafx scene).
     */
    protected void setgamesurface(scene gamesurface) {
        this.gamesurface = gamesurface;
    }

    /**
     * all javafx nodes which are rendered onto the game surface(scene) is
     * a javafx group object.
     * @return group the root containing many child nodes to be displayed into
     * the scene area.
     */
    public group getscenenodes() {
        return scenenodes;
    }

    /**
     * sets the javafx group that will hold all javafx nodes which are rendered
     * onto the game surface(scene) is a javafx group object.
     * @param scenenodes the root container having many children nodes
     * to be displayed into the scene area.
     */
    protected void setscenenodes(group scenenodes) {
        this.scenenodes = scenenodes;
    }

}


sprite manager

a sprite manager class is a helper class to help the game loop keep track of sprites. normally a sprite manager will contain all sprites and each sprite contains a javafx node which is displayed on the stage graph.

package carlfx.gameengine;

import java.util.*;

/**
 * sprite manager is responsible for holding all sprite objects, and cleaning up
 * sprite objects to be removed. all collections are used by the javafx
 * application thread. during each cycle (animation frame) sprite management
 * occurs. this assists the user of the api to not have to create lists to
 * later be garbage collected. should provide some performance gain.
 * @author cdea
 */
public class spritemanager {
    /** all the sprite objects currently in play */
    private final static list game_actors = new arraylist<>();

    /** a global single threaded list used to check collision against other
     * sprite objects.
     */
    private final static list check_collision_list = new arraylist<>();

    /** a global single threaded set used to cleanup or remove sprite objects
     * in play.
     */
    private final static set clean_up_sprites = new hashset<>();

    /** */
    public list getallsprites() {
        return game_actors;
    }

    /**
     * varargs of sprite objects to be added to the game.
     * @param sprites
     */
    public void addsprites(sprite... sprites) {
        game_actors.addall(arrays.aslist(sprites));
    }

    /**
     * varargs of sprite objects to be removed from the game.
     * @param sprites
     */
    public void removesprites(sprite... sprites) {
        game_actors.removeall(arrays.aslist(sprites));
    }

    /** returns a set of sprite objects to be removed from the game_actors.
     * @return clean_up_sprites
     */
    public set getspritestoberemoved() {
        return clean_up_sprites;
    }

 /**
     * adds sprite objects to be removed
     * @param sprites varargs of sprite objects.
     */
    public void addspritestoberemoved(sprite... sprites) {
        if (sprites.length > 1) {
            clean_up_sprites.addall(arrays.aslist((sprite[]) sprites));
        } else {
            clean_up_sprites.add(sprites[0]);
        }
    }

    /**
     * returns a list of sprite objects to assist in collision checks.
     * this is a temporary and is a copy of all current sprite objects
     * (copy of game_actors).
     * @return check_collision_list
     */
    public list getcollisionstocheck() {
        return check_collision_list;
    }

    /**
     * clears the list of sprite objects in the collision check collection
     * (check_collision_list).
     */
    public void resetcollisionstocheck() {
        check_collision_list.clear();
        check_collision_list.addall(game_actors);
    }

    /**
     * removes sprite objects and nodes from all
     * temporary collections such as:
     * clean_up_sprites.
     * the sprite to be removed will also be removed from the
     * list of all sprite objects called (game_actors).
     */
    public void cleanupsprites() {

        // remove from actors list
        game_actors.removeall(clean_up_sprites);

        // reset the clean up sprites
        clean_up_sprites.clear();
    }
}

leprechaun

the sprite class represents an image or a node to display on the javafx scene graph. in a 2D game, a sprite will contain additional information such as its speed for the object as it moves through the stage area. the game loop will call the update () and collide () methods at each interval of a keyframe.

package carlfx.gameengine;

import java.util.arraylist;
import java.util.list;
import javafx.animation.animation;
import javafx.scene.node;

/**
 * the sprite class represents a image or node to be displayed.
 * in a 2d game a sprite will contain a velocity for the image to
 * move across the scene area. the game loop will call the update()
 * and collide() method at every interval of a key frame. a list of
 * animations can be used during different situations in the game
 * such as rocket thrusters, walking, jumping, etc.
 * @author cdea
 */
public abstract class sprite {

    /** animation for the node */
    public list animations = new arraylist<>();

    /** current display node */
    public node node;

    /** velocity vector x direction */
    public double vx = 0;

    /** velocity vector y direction */
    public double vy = 0;

    /** dead? */
    public boolean isdead = false;

    /**
     * updates this sprite object's velocity, or animations.
     */
    public abstract void update();

    /**
     * did this sprite collide into the other sprite?
     *
     * @param other - the other sprite.
     * @return
     */
    public boolean collide(sprite other) {
        return false;
    }
}

phew! if you’ve made it this far, you are a brave soul. let’s take a little break and try out the demo I created using the game engine above.

below is a java web start button to launch the game demo. later you will see the design and source code detailing how it was created.

conditions:

  • java 7 or later

  • javafx 2.0.2 or later

  • windows xp or later (should be available soon for linux / macos)


atomsmasher game loop demo

demo

gamelooppart2 design

Below is a class diagram of the game demo called atom smasher which uses the game engine framework mentioned earlier.

below is the atom smasher class diagram in figure 2.



figure 2.atom smasher class diagram

gamelooppart2

the gamelooppart2 is the main javafx driver or application that runs the game. this creates a gameworld object to initialize and starts the game loop.

package carlfx;

import carlfx.gameengine.gameworld;
import javafx.application.application;
import javafx.stage.stage;
/**
 * the main driver of the game.
 * @author cdea
 */
public class gamelooppart2 extends application {

    gameworld gameworld = new atomsmasher(60, "javafx 2 gametutorial part 2 - game loop");
    /**
     * @param args the command line arguments
     */
    public static void main(string[] args) {
        launch(args);
    }

    @override
    public void start(stage primarystage) {
        // setup title, scene, stats, controls, and actors.
        gameworld.initialize(primarystage);

        // kick off the game loop
        gameworld.begingameloop();

        // display window
        primarystage.show();
    }

}

atom crusher

atomsmasher is a class derived from the gameworld class. it creates many spheres which come to life with random speeds. Button commands allow the user to generate more “atoms” (javafx circle nodes). As each atom collides they will invoke the implode () method which produces a fade transition animation. you will notice how easy it is to implement this game just by implementing

initialize (), handleupdate (), handlecollision (),

and

cleanupsprites ()

methods. once implemented, the game engine does the rest. the

initialize()

The method creates the button controls for the user. to update the sprite positions or change the state of the game, you will implement the

handleupdate ()

method. to compare all the sprites if they collided with each other, you will implement the

handle collision ()

. the last part of the game loop lifecycle is cleaning up the sprites. clean means update sprite manager and update javafx scene (remove nodes).

package carlfx;

import carlfx.gameengine.gameworld;
import carlfx.gameengine.sprite;
import java.util.random;
import javafx.animation.timeline;
import javafx.event.eventhandler;
import javafx.scene.group;
import javafx.scene.scene;
import javafx.scene.control.buttonbuilder;
import javafx.scene.control.label;
import javafx.scene.input.mouseevent;
import javafx.scene.layout.hboxbuilder;
import javafx.scene.layout.vbox;
import javafx.scene.layout.vboxbuilder;
import javafx.scene.paint.color;
import javafx.scene.shape.circle;
import javafx.stage.stage;
import static javafx.animation.animation.status.running;
import static javafx.animation.animation.status.stopped;

/**
 * this is a simple game world simulating a bunch of spheres looking
 * like atomic particles colliding with each other. when the game loop begins
 * the user will notice random spheres (atomic particles) floating and
 * colliding. the user is able to press a button to generate more
 * atomic particles. also, the user can freeze the game.
 *
 * @author cdea
 */
public class atomsmasher extends gameworld {
    /** read only field to show the number of sprite objects are on the field*/
    private final static label num_sprites_field = new label();

    public atomsmasher(int fps, string title){
        super(fps, title);
    }

    /**
     * initialize the game world by adding sprite objects.
     * @param primarystage
     */
    @override
    public void initialize(final stage primarystage) {
        // sets the window title
        primarystage.settitle(getwindowtitle());

        // create the scene
        setscenenodes(new group());
        setgamesurface(new scene(getscenenodes(), 640, 580));
        primarystage.setscene(getgamesurface());

        // create many spheres
        generatemanyspheres(150);

        // display the number of spheres visible.
        // create a button to add more spheres.
        // create a button to freeze the game loop.
        final timeline gameloop = getgameloop();
        vbox stats = vboxbuilder.create()
            .spacing(5)
            .translatex(10)
            .translatey(10)
            .children(hboxbuilder.create()
                .spacing(5)
                .children(new label("number of particles: "), // show no. particles
                    num_sprites_field).build(),

                    // button to build more spheres
                    buttonbuilder.create()
                        .text("regenerate")
                        .onmousepressed(new eventhandler() {
                            @override
                            public void handle(mouseevent arg0) {
                                generatemanyspheres(150);
                            }}).build(),

                    // button to freeze game loop
                    buttonbuilder.create()
                        .text("freeze/resume")
                        .onmousepressed(new eventhandler() {

                            @override
                            public void handle(mouseevent arg0) {
                                switch (gameloop.getstatus()) {
                                    case running:
                                        gameloop.stop();
                                        break;
                                    case stopped:
                                        gameloop.play();
                                        break;
                                }
                            }}).build()
            ).build(); // (vbox) stats on children

        // lay down the controls
        getscenenodes().getchildren().add(stats);
    }

    /**
     * make some more space spheres (atomic particles)
     */
    private void generatemanyspheres(int numspheres) {
        random rnd = new random();
        scene gamesurface = getgamesurface();
        for (int i=0; i (gamesurface.getwidth() - (circle.getradius() * 2))) {
                newx = gamesurface.getwidth() - (circle.getradius()  * 2);
            }

            // check for the bottom of screen the height newy is greater than height
            // minus radius times 2(height of sprite)
            double newy = rnd.nextint((int) gamesurface.getheight());
            if (newy > (gamesurface.getheight() - (circle.getradius() * 2))) {
                newy = gamesurface.getheight() - (circle.getradius() * 2);
            }

            circle.settranslatex(newx);
            circle.settranslatey(newy);
            circle.setvisible(true);
            circle.setid(b.tostring());

            // add to actors in play (sprite objects)
            getspritemanager().addsprites(b);

            // add sprite's
            getscenenodes().getchildren().add(0, b.node);

        }
    }

    /**
     * each sprite will update it's velocity and bounce off wall borders.
     * @param sprite - an atomic particle (a sphere).
     */
    @override
    protected void handleupdate(sprite sprite) {
        if (sprite instanceof atom) {
            atom sphere = (atom) sprite;

            // advance the spheres velocity
            sphere.update();

            // bounce off the walls when outside of boundaries
            if (sphere.node.gettranslatex() > (getgamesurface().getwidth()  -
                sphere.node.getboundsinparent().getwidth()) ||
                sphere.node.gettranslatex() < 0 ) {                 sphere.vx = sphere.vx * -1;             }             if (sphere.node.gettranslatey() > getgamesurface().getheight()-
                sphere.node.getboundsinparent().getheight() ||
                sphere.node.gettranslatey() < 0) {
                sphere.vy = sphere.vy * -1;
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * how to handle the collision of two sprite objects. stops the particle
     * by zeroing out the velocity if a collision occurred.
     * @param spritea
     * @param spriteb
     * @return
     */
    @override
    protected boolean handlecollision(sprite spritea, sprite spriteb) {
        if (spritea.collide(spriteb)) {
            ((atom)spritea).implode(this);
            ((atom)spriteb).implode(this);
            getspritemanager().addspritestoberemoved(spritea, spriteb);
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * remove dead things.
     */
    @override
    protected void cleanupsprites() {
        // removes from the scene and backend store
        super.cleanupsprites();

        // let user know how many sprites are showing.
        num_sprites_field.settext(string.valueof(getspritemanager().getallsprites().size()));

    }
}


atom

the atom class extends from the sprite class. an atom is a sprite that appears as a spherical object that moves across the stage. an atom will have a random radius, color and speed. as each atom sprite collides with another atom, they will animate a fade transition (the implode () method).

package carlfx;

import carlfx.gameengine.gameworld;
import carlfx.gameengine.sprite;
import javafx.animation.fadetransitionbuilder;
import javafx.event.actionevent;
import javafx.event.eventhandler;
import javafx.scene.paint.color;
import javafx.scene.paint.radialgradient;
import javafx.scene.paint.radialgradientbuilder;
import javafx.scene.paint.stop;
import javafx.scene.shape.circle;
import javafx.scene.shape.circlebuilder;
import javafx.util.duration;

/**
 * a spherical looking object (atom) with a random radius, color, and velocity.
 * when two atoms collide each will fade and become removed from the scene. the
 * method called implode() implements a fade transition effect.
 *
 * @author cdea
 */
public class atom extends sprite {

    public atom(double radius, color fill) {
        circle sphere = circlebuilder.create()
                .centerx(radius)
                .centery(radius)
                .radius(radius)
                .cache(true)
                .build();

        radialgradient rgrad = radialgradientbuilder.create()
                    .centerx(sphere.getcenterx() - sphere.getradius() / 3)
                    .centery(sphere.getcentery() - sphere.getradius() / 3)
                    .radius(sphere.getradius())
                    .proportional(false)
                    .stops(new stop(0.0, fill), new stop(1.0, color.black))
                    .build();

        sphere.setfill(rgrad);

        // set javafx node to a circle
        node = sphere;

    }

    /**
     * change the velocity of the atom particle.
     */
    @override
    public void update() {
        node.settranslatex(node.gettranslatex() + vx);
        node.settranslatey(node.gettranslatey() + vy);
    }

    @override
    public boolean collide(sprite other) {
        if (other instanceof atom) {
            return collide((atom)other);
        }
       return false;
    }

    /**
     * when encountering another atom to determine if they collided.
     * @param other another atom
     * @return boolean true if this atom and other atom has collided,
     * otherwise false.
     */
    private boolean collide(atom other) {

        // if an object is hidden they didn't collide.
        if (!node.isvisible() ||
            !other.node.isvisible() ||
            this == other) {
            return false;
        }

        // determine it's size
        circle othersphere = other.getascircle();
        circle thissphere =  getascircle();
        double dx = othersphere.gettranslatex() - thissphere.gettranslatex();
        double dy = othersphere.gettranslatey() - thissphere.gettranslatey();
        double distance = math.sqrt( dx * dx + dy * dy );
        double mindist  = othersphere.getradius() + thissphere.getradius() + 3;

        return (distance < mindist);
    }

    /**
     * returns a node casted as a javafx circle shape.
     * @return circle shape representing javafx node for convenience.
     */
    public circle getascircle() {
        return (circle) node;
    }

    /**
     * animate an implosion. once done remove from the game world
     * @param gameworld - game world
     */
    public void implode(final gameworld gameworld) {
        vx = vy = 0;
        fadetransitionbuilder.create()
            .node(node)
            .duration(duration.millis(300))
            .fromvalue(node.getopacity())
            .tovalue(0)
            .onfinished(new eventhandler() {
                @override
                public void handle(actionevent arg0) {
                    isdead = true;
                    gameworld.getscenenodes().getchildren().remove(node);
                }
            })
            .build()
            .play();
    }
}

hope you have the chance to understand the fundamentals of a game loop and apply the knowledge later by implementing a robust game engine. Although, I briefly mention collision, I’m saving that for part 4 of these tutorials. please stay tuned for part 3 where we will get into typing using the keyboard or mouse. feel free to experiment. let me know what you have on offer.
;-)

carl

crts



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/refresh_rate

double buffer



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/double_buffering#double_buffering

develop games in java

by david brackeen with bret barker and laurence vanhelsuwe. page 56 “get rid of flicker and tears”

buffer strategy

API –

http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/awt/image/bufferstrategy.html


Source link

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